Publications from LMECOL

Those listed are currently available. Other older papers will be added as we have time to prepare pdf files from paper copies. Articles are listed by approximate reverse chronological order within each category. Available Journal Articles


Battistelli, J.M., R.B. Franklin, and A.L. Mills. 2018. Effect of tidal cycling rate on the distribution and abundance of nitrogen-oxidizing bacteria in a bench-scale fill-and-drain bioreactor. Water. 10:492-505. doi:10.3390/w10040492 (1,162k)


Rice, K., D. L. Moyer, and A. L. Mills. 2017. Riverine discharges to Chesapeake Bay: analysis of long-term (1927-2014) records and implications for predicting future flows in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. J. Environ. Man. 204:246-254. (1,692k)


Herman, J.S., A.G. Hounshell, R.B. Franklin, and A.L. Mills. 2013. Biological Control on Acid Generation at the Conduit-Bedrock Boundary in Submerged Caves. Acta Carsologica 42:213-225. (592k)

Mills, A. L., T.N. Tysall, and J.S. Herman. 2013. A simple approach for collection of nearfield groundwater samples in submerged limestone caverns. Acta Carsologica 42:227-235. (244k)

Flewelling, S.A., G.M. Hornberger, J.S. Herman, A.L. Mills, and W. M. Robertson. 2013. Diel patterns in coastal-stream nitrate concentrations linked to evapotranspiration in the riparian zone of a low-relief, agricultural catchment. Hydrol.Process. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.9763 (405k)


Flewelling, S. A., G. M. Hornberger, J. S. Herman, and A. L. Mills. 2011. Travel time controls the magnitude of nitrate discharge in groundwater bypassing the riparian zone to a stream on virginia’s coastal plain. Hydrol. Process. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.8219.


Franklin, R.B. and A.L. Mills. 2009. Importance of spatially-structured environmental heterogeneity in controlling microbial community composition at small spatial scales in an agricultural field. Soil Biol. Biochem. 41:1833-1840. (255k)


Gu, C., G.M. Hornberger, J.S. Herman, and A.L. Mills . 2008. Influence of stream-groundwater interactions in the streambed sediments on nitrate flux to a low-relief coastal stream. Water Resour. Res. 44, W11432, doi:10.1029/2007WR006739. (1,223k)

Levine L.H., H. Kasahara , J. Kopka , A. Erban, I. Fehrl, F. Kaplan, W. Zhao, R.C. Littell, C. Guy, R. Wheeler, J. Sager, A. Mills, H. G. Levine. 2008. Physiologic and metabolic responses of wheat seedlings to elevated and super-elevated carbon dioxide. Adv. Space Res. 42:1917-1928. (650k)

Gu, C., G.M. Hornberger, A.L. Mills, J.S. Herman. 2008. The effect of freshets on the flux of groundwater nitrate through streambed sediments. Water Resour. Res. 44, W05415, doi:10.1029/2007WR006488. (389k)


Gu, C., G. M. Hornberger, A. L. Mills, J. S Herman, and S. A. Flewelling 2007, Nitrate reduction in streambed sediments: Effects of flow and biogeochemical kinetics, Water Resour. Res., 43, W12413, doi:10.1029/2007WR006027. (410k)


Franklin, R.B., and A.L. Mills. 2006. Structural and functional responses of a sewage microbial community to dilution-induced reductions in diversity. Microb. Ecol. 52:280-288. (306k)

Kang, S., and A.L. Mills. 2006. The effect of sample size in studies of soil microbial community structure. J. Microbial Meth. 66:242-250. (180k)


Blum, L.K., M.S. Roberts, J.L. Garland, and A.L. Mills. 2004. Microbial communities among the dominant high marsh plants and associated sediments of the United States East Coast. Microb. Ecol. 48(3):375-388. (228k)

Peterson, B.V., M. Hummerick, M.S. Roberts, V. Krumins, A.L. Kish, J.L. Garland, S. Maxwell, and A.L. Mills. 2004. Characterization of microbial and chemical composition of shuttle wet waste with permanent gas and volatile organic compound analyses. Adv. Space Res. 34:1470-1476.(397k)

Roberts, M.S., J.L. Garland, and A.L. Mills. 2004. Microbial astronauts: assembling microbial communities for Advanced Life Support Systems. Microb. Ecol. 47(2):137-149. (238K)

Kang, S., and A.L. Mills. 2004. Microbial community structure changes following disturbance in the overlying plant community. Soil Sci. 169 (1):55-65.


Herman, J. S., and A. L. Mills. 2003. Biological and hydrogeological interactions affect the persistence of 17β-estradiol in an agricultural watershed. Geobiology. 1:141-151.

Franklin, R.B., and A.L. Mills. 2003. Multi-scale variation in spatial heterogeneity for microbial community structure in an eastern Virginia agricultural field. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 44:335-346.

Garland, J.L., M.S Roberts, L.F. Levine, and A.L. Mills. 2003. Community-level physiological profiling performed with an oxygen-sensitive fluorophore in a microtiter plate. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:2994-2998. (81k)

Mills, A.L., J.S. Herman, R.M. Ford, and G.M. Hornberger. 2003. Functional redundancy promotes functional stability in diverse microbial bioreactor communities. SAE Technical Paper Series No.2003-01-2509. (138k)

Mills, A.L. 2003. Keeping in touch: microbial association with soil particles. Adv. Agron. 78:1-43. (18,000k)


Franklin, R.B., L.K Blum, A. McComb, and A.L. Mills. 2002. A geostatistical analysis of small-scale spatial variability in bacterial abundance and community structure in salt-marsh creek bank sediments. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 42:71-80. (271k)

Kish, A.L., M.P. Hummerick, M.S. Roberts, J.L. Garland, S. Maxwell, and A.L. Mills. 2002. Biostability and microbiological analysis of shuttle crew refuse. SAE Technical Paper Series No.021CES-113. (1,800k)

Knapp, E. P., J.S. Herman, A.L. Mills, and G.M. Hornberger. 2002. Alteration of reactive mineral surfaces in anaerobic groundwater systems. Appl. Geochem. 387-398. (263k)


Bolster, C.H., A.L. Mills, G.M. Hornberger, and J.S. Herman. 2001. Effect of Surface Coatings, Grain Size, and Ionic Strength on the Maximum Attainable Fractional Surface Coverage of Bacteria on Sand Surfaces. J. Contam. Hydrol. 50:287-305. (214k)

Garland, J. L. Mills, A.L., and J.S. Young. 2001. Analysis of methods for numerical analysis of community-level physiological profiling of bacterial communities. Soil Biol. Biochem. 33:1059-1066. (278k)

Powelson, D.K., and A.L. Mills. 2001 Transport of Escherichia coli in saturated, unsaturated and variably unsaturated sand columns. J. Environ. Qual. 31:238-245. (847k)

Franklin, R.B., J.L. Garland, C. H. Bolster, and A.L. Mills. 2001. The impact of dilution on microbial community structure and functional potential: a comparison of numerical simulations and batch culture experiments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67(2):702-712. (132k)


Sprague, L.A., J.S. Herman, G.M. Hornberger, and A.L. Mills. 2000. Atrazine adsorption and colloid-facilitated transport through the unsaturated zone. J. Environ. Qual. 29(5): 1632-1641. (714k)

Lowit, M., L.K. Blum, and A.L. Mills. 2000. Sources of variability in the community level physiological profiles of environmental samples. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 32(2): 97-102. (186k)

Bolster, C.H., A.L. Mills, G.M. Hornberger, and J.S. Herman. 2000. Effect of intra-population variability on the long-distance transport of bacteria. Ground Water 38(3): 370-375. (523k)


Franklin, R.B., D.R. Taylor, and A.L. Mills.1999. The distribution of microbial communities in anaerobic and aerobic zones of a shallow coastal plain aquifer. Microb. Ecol. 38:377-386. (784k)

Garland, J.L., A.L. Mills, A. Morales, and K. Cook. 1999. Survival of human-associated bacteria in prototype advanced life support systems. SAE Technical Paper Series No. 1999-01-2061. (49k)

Johnson, S. E., J. S. Herman, A.L. Mills, and G. M. Hornberger. 1999. Bioavailability and desorption characteristics of aged, nonextractable atrazine in soil. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 18:1747-1754. (734k)

Bolster, C.H., G.M. Hornberger, A.L. Mills, and J.S. Herman. 1999. The spatial distribution of deposited bacteria following miscible displacement experiments in intact cores. Water Resour. Res. 35:1797-1807. (1,665k)

Franklin, R.B., D.R. Taylor, and A.L. Mills. 1999. Characterization of microbial communities using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). J. Microbiolog. Meth. 3:225-235. (932k)


Kauffman, S.J., C.H. Bolster, G.M. Hornberger, J.S. Herman, and A.L. Mills 1998. Rate-limited transport of hydroxyatrazine in an unsaturated soil. Environ. Sci. Technol. 32(20):3137-3141. (68k)

Powelson, D. K., and A. L. Mills. 1998. Bacterial transport through sand with variable water saturation and surfactant concentration. Soil Sci. 163:694-704. (856k)

Morley, L.M., G.M. Hornberger, A.L. Mills, and J.S. Herman. 1998. Effects of transverse mixing on transport of bacteria through heterogeneous porous media. Water Resour. Res.34(8):1901-1908. (542k)

Knapp, E.P., J.S. Herman, G.M. Hornberger, and A.L. Mills. 1998. The effect of distribution of iron-oxyhydroxide grain coatings on the transport of bacterial cells in porous media. Environ. Geol. 33:243-248. (538k)

Bolster, C.H., G. M. Hornberger, A. L. Mills, and J.L. Wilson. 1998. Method for calculating deposition coefficients using the fraction of bacteria recovered from laboratory columns. Environ. Sci. Technol. 32:1329-1332. (324k)

Bouma, J. E., A. L. Mills, and D. L. Pierson. 1998. Reliability and resilience of populations and metabolic functions within defined microbial communities in biological reactors. SAE Technical Paper Series No. 981609. (181k)


Frye, J.P., A.L. Mills, and W.E. Odum. 1994. Methane flux in Peltandra virginica (Araceae) wetlands: comparison of field data with a mathematical model. Am. J. Bot. 81:407-413. (273k)


Blum, L. K. 1993. Spartina alterniflora dynamics in a Virginia marsh. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 10:169-178. (944k)


MacMillin, K. L.K. Blum, and A.L. Mills. 1992. Comparison of bacterial dynamics in tidal creeks of the lower Delmarva Peninsula, Virginia, USA. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 86:111-121. (218k)

Hornberger, G.M., A.L. Mills, and J.S. Herman. 1992. Bacterial transport in porous media: a comparison between model results and laboratory experiment. Water Resour. Res. 28:915-923. (665k)


Garland, J.L., and A.L. Mills. 1991. Classification and characterization of heterotrophic microbial communities on the basis of patterns of community-level-sole-carbon-source utilization. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:2351-2359. (897k)

Fontes, D.E., A.L. Mills, G.M. Hornberger, and J.S. Herman. 1991. Physical and chemical factors influencing transport of microorganisms through porous media. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:2473-2481. (965k)


Scholl, M.A., A.L. Mills, J.S. Herman, and G.M. Hornberger. 1990. The influence of mineralogy and solution chemistry on attachment of bacteria to representative aquifer materials. J. Contam. Hydrol. 6:331-336. (1,100k)


Herlihy, A.T., A.L. Mills and J.S. Herman. 1988. Distribution of sulfide minerals resulting from sulfate reduction in sediments of an acidified lake. Appl. Geochem. 3:333-344. (1,340k)

Lung, W.-S., A.L. Mills, L.A. Movall, and A.T. Herlihy. 1988. Modeling sulfate, pH, and alkalinity in an acidified lake. Water Air Soil Pollut. 37:157-170. (1,020k)

Moses, C.O., A.T. Herlihy, J.S. Herman, and A.L. Mills. 1988 Ion chromatographic analysis of mixtures containing ferrous and ferric iron. Talanta 35:15-22. (1010k)


Herlihy, L.J., J.N. Galloway, and A.L. Mills. 1987. Bacterial utilization of formic and acetic acid in rainwater. Atmosph. Environ. 21:2397-2402. (809k)

Bell, P.E., A.L. Mills, and J.S. Herman. 1987. Biogeochemical conditions favoring formation of magnetite during anaerobic iron reduction. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53:2610-2616. (1,020k)

Mills, A.L., and L. Mallory. 1987. Community structure changes in epilithic bacterial communities stressed by acid mine drainage. Microb. Ecol. 14:219-232. (640k)


Herlihy, A.T., and A.L. Mills. 1986. The pH regime of sediments underlying acidified lakes. Biogeochemistry. 2:95-99. Printer's errors corrected 2:377-381. (557k)


Baker, K.H., and A.L. Mills. 1982. Determination of the number of respiring Thiobacillus ferrooxidans cells in water samples by using combined fluorescent antibody -2- (p- iodophenyl) -3- (p-nitrophenyl) -5- phenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 43:338-344. (832k)


Mills, A.L., and R. Maubrey. 1981. The effect of mineral composition on bacterial attachment to submerged rock surfaces. Microb. Ecol. 7:315-322. (386k)


Mills, A.L., and R. Wassel. 1980. Aspects of diversity measurement for microbial communities. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 40:578-586. (2,000k)


Kaper, J., A.L. Mills, and R.R. Colwell. 1978. Evaluation of the accuracy and precision of enumerating aerobic heterotrophs in water samples by the spread plate method. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 35:756-761. (405k)

Berk, S.G., A.L. Mills, D.L. Hendricks, and R.R. Colwell. 1978. Effects of ingesting mercury-containing bacteria on mercury tolerance and growth rates of ciliates. Microb. Ecol. 4(4):319-330. ( 826k)

Available Book Chapters

Mills, A.L. 2018. Qualitative and quantitative aspects of the modern nitrogen cycle. p. 25-50. In Hurst, C.J. Something about Terrestrial Communities. V.6 Springer (22Mb)

Mills, A.L. 1999. The role of bacteria in environmental geochemistry. p. 125-132. In Plumlee, G.S., and M.H. Logsdon (ed.) Reviews in Economic Geology, v.6, Society of Economic Geologists. (1.3Mb)

Mills, A. L. and J. E. Bouma. 1997. Strain and function stability in gnotobiotic reactors. p. 184-194. In: Insam H., and A. Rangger (ed.) Microbial Communities: Functional Versus Structural and Genetic Approaches. Springer, (652k)

Mills, A.L. 1997. Microbial movement in the subsurface. p 223-241. In. Amy, P.S., and D.H. Haldeman (ed.) Microbial Ecology of the Terrestrial Subsurface. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. (1,098kb)

Mills, A.L. and P.E. Bell. 1986. Determination of Individual Organisms and Their Activities In Situ. p 27-60. In. Tate, R.L., III (ed.) Autecology: A Method for Environmental Studies. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (3,343kb)

Mills, A.L. and A.T. Herlihy. 1985. Microbial Ecology and Acidic Pollution of impoundments. p.169-189. In. Gunnison, D.(ed.) Microbial Processes in Reservoirs. Dr. W. Junk,Publishers, Dordrecht. (2,495kb)

Mills, A.L. 2002. Metal requirements and tolerance. pp. 456-465. In C.H. Hurst (ed.) Manual of Environmental Microbiology. 2nd edition. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.

Technical Reports, Symposium Proceedings, etc.

Mills, A. L., G. M. Hornberger, and J. S. Herman. 2008. Sediments in low-relief coastal streams as effective filters of agricultural nitrate. Proceedings of the AWRA Specialty Conference. American Water Resources Association, Norfolk, VA.

Herman, J. S., A. L. Mills, G. M. Hornberger, A. C. Sofranko, and M. S. Olson . 2008. Quantifying nitrate flux during storm events. Proceedings of the World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2008, American Society of Civil Engineers, Honolulu, HI.

Mills, A. L., G. M. Hornberger, and J. S. Herman. 2002. Small falling-head devices to determine the distribution of Ks in porous media. LMECOLReport #2002-01. Laboratory of Microbial Ecology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA. (180 k)

Mills, A.L. 2002. Microbes and energy acquisition in subterranean habitats. In Martin, J. B., C.M. Wicks, and I.D. Sasowsky (eds.) Hydrogeology and Biology of Post-Paleozoic Carbonate Aquifers, Proceedings of the Symposium on Karst Frontiers: Florida and Related Environments. KWI Special Publication No 7. Karst Waters Institute, Charles Town, WV. Pp 85-86. (Invited, keynote address)

Herman, J.S., A.L. Mills, and I.M. Cozzarelli. 2001. Microbially mediated alteration of iron mineral phases in contaminated sedimentary aquifers. In Cidu, R. (ed.) Proceedings of the Tenth International Symposium on Water-Rock Interaction, WRI-10. A. A. Balkema Publishers, Lisse, The Netherlands. 2:1441-1444. (326K)

Richardson, R.L., A.L. Mills, J.S. Herman, and G.M. Hornberger. 2000. Effect of Humic Material on Interactions Between Bacterial Cells and Mineral Surfaces. LMECOLReport #2000-01. Laboratory of Microbial Ecology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA. (174k)